MBBS


About MBBS

Rajiv Gandhi University of Health Sciences implemented the new regulations for the batches of students admitted to the M.B.B.S course from the academic year 1997-98 onwards.
The new regulation recommends

  1. The Medical curriculum should be oriented towards educating students to take up the responsibilities of physicians of first contact. The medical graduate should be capable of functioning independently in both urban and rural environment.
  2. Every effort should be made to provide educational experience that allows hands-on – experience both in hospital as well as in community setting. For this purpose, a comprehensive list of clinical skills that a graduate must acquire at the end of the course including internship has been prepared.
  3. That maximum efforts be made to encourage integrated teaching and every attempt be made to de-emphasize compartmentalization of disciplines so as to achieve horizontal and vertical integration in different phases
  4. That educational experience should emphasize health rather than only disease and community orientation also instead of only hospital orientation. Population control and family planning should also be given due emphasis.
  5. Due importance to be given to teaching common problems of health and disease and to the national programs.
  6. That every effort should be made to use leaner oriented methods which would encourage cultivation of logical thinking, clarity of expression, independence of judgment, scientific habits, problem solving abilities, and self-directed learning.
  7. Reduction of ” didactic lectures (not more than 1/3) of total teaching hours) and increasing use of active methods of learning such as group discussion seminars, role play, field visits, demonstrations, peer interactions etc. Which enable students to develop personality communication skills and other qualities which are necessary.
  8. Examinations be designed with a view to assess not merely the knowledge but also practical and clinical skills, habits and values which are necessary for a graduate to carry out professional day to day work competently.
  9. Regular periodic assessment be done throughout the course for internal assessment. The assessment need not be limited to written tests. It should relate to other items such as maintenance of records, participation in seminars and group discussions, clinical case study, proficiency in carrying out practical or clinical skill or participation in projects and assignments (even) during vacation. These be evaluated objectively and recorded.
  10. That every medical institution should evolve institutional objectives, which would be in consonce with the national goals (See section II) and health policy. The institutional objectives should describe the attributes of their product.
  11. Shift in the role of medical teachers from mere imparting knowledge to that of a facilitator and motivator of student learning.

That every medical college establishes a medical education unit for faculty development, preparation of learning resource materials and improved evaluation methods.

Rajiv Gandhi University of Health Sciences endorses these recommendations. It strongly desires that affiliated colleges should implement these while conducting the MBBS course.

Doctors and other health professionals are confronted with many ethical issues problems. With advances in science and technology, these problems are on the increase. It is necessary for every doctor to be aware of these problems. The doctors should also be trained to analyze the ethical problems as they arise and deal with them in an acceptable manner. It is therefore recommended that teaching of medical ethics be introduced in phase – I and continued throughout the course including the internship period.

In order to implement the new regulations, from the academic year of 1997-98 it was necessary for this University to restructure the I MBBS course. Accordingly ordinances were published for phase I subject in 1998 and for phase II subject in 1999. In this revised edition (2004) the amendments made by the Medical Council of India from time to time since 1997 have been incorporated. The goals and general objectives of MBBS education are given is section II. The eligibility for admission, duration of the course, attendance, internal assessment , distribution of marks for Phase-I and professional examination subjects, criteria for pass, and grounds for migration are given in Section III. Revised coursed contents of subjects of (syllabi) Phase I and II, teaching schedule and scheme of examination are given in Section IV. The section V contains the topics recommended for teaching of medical ethics.
Objectives of Education stated in MCI Regulations, 1997

The MCI has started the goals and general objectives of graduate medical education in the new regulations. They are given in this section. It is desired that in consonance with these national goals, each medical college should evolve institutional objectives.

NATIONAL GOALS:

At the end of undergraduate programme, the medical student shall endeavour to be able to:

  • Recognise ‘health for all” as a national goal and health right of all citizens and by undergoing training for medical profession fulfill his/her social obligations towards realisation of this goal.
  • Learn every aspect of National policies on health and devote himself/herself to its practical implementation.
  • Achieve competence in practice of holistic medicine, encompassing primitive, preventive curative and rehabilitative aspects of common diseases.
  • Develop scientific temper, acquire educational experience for proficiency in profession and promote health living.
  • Become exemplary citizen by observation of medical ethics and fulfilling social and professional obligations, so as to respond to national aspirations.

INSTITUTIONAL GOALS

The undergraduate students coming out of a medical institution should:

  • Be competent in diagnosis and management of common health problems of individual and the community, commensurate with his/her position as a member of the health team at the primary, secondary or tertiary levels, using his/her clinical skills based on history, physical examination and relevant investigations.
  • Be competent to practice preventive, promotive, curative and rehabilitative medicine in respect to the commonly encountered health problems.
  • Appreciate for different therapeutic modalities, be familiar with the administration of the “essential drugs” and their common side effects.
  • Be able to appreciate the social-psychological, culture, economic and environmental factors affecting health and develop humane attitude towards the discharging one’s professional responsibilities.
  • Possess the attitude for continued self learning and to seek further expertise or to pursue research in any chosen area of medicine; Be familiar with the basic factors, which are essential for the implementation of the National Health Programs including practical aspects of the following.(i) Family Welfare and Maternal and Child Health (MCH),
    (ii) Sanitation and water supply,
    (iii) Prevention and control of communicable and non-communicable diseases,
    (iv) Immunisation,
    (v) Health Education;
  • Acquire basic management skill in the area of human resources, materials and resource management related to health care delivery.
  • Be able identify community health problems and learn to work resolve these by designing instituting corrective steps and evaluating outcome of such measures
  • Be able to work as a leading partner in health care teams and acquire proficiency in communication skills.
  • Be competent to work in a variety of health care settings.
  • Have personal characteristics and attitude required for professional life such as personal integrity, sense of responsibility and dependability and ability to relate to or show concern for other individuals.
  • All efforts must be made to equip the medical graduate to acquire the detailed in Appendix B of Medical Education, 1997.

DEPARTMENTAL GOALS & OBJECTIVES

HUMAN ANATOMY

Goal
The broad goal of the teaching of undergraduate students in Anatomy aims at providing comprehensive knowledge of the gross and microscope structure and development of human body to provide a basis for understanding the clinical correlation of organs or structure involved and the anatomical basis for the disease presentations.

Objectives:

Knowledge

At the end of the course the student shall be able to:

  • Comprehend the normal disposition, clinically relevant interrelationships, functional and cross sectional anatomy of the various structures in the body.
  • Identify the microscopic structure and correlate elementary ultra structure of various organs and tissues and correlate the structure with the functions as a prerequisite for understanding the altered state in various disease processes.
  • Comprehend the basic structure and connections of the central nervous system to analyse the integrative and regulative functions of the organs and systems. He/she shall be able to locate the site of gross lesions according to the deficits encountered.
  • Demonstrate knowledge of the basic principles and sequential development of the organs and system, recognize the critical stages and development and effects of common teratogens, genetic mutations and environmental hazards. He/She shall be able to explain the developmental basis of the major variations and abnormalities.

Skills

At the end of the course the student shall be able to:

  • Identify and locate all the structures of the body and mark the topography of the living anatomy;
  • Identify the organs and tissues under the microscope;
  • Understand principles of newer imaging techniques and interpretation of Computerized
    Tomography (CT) Scan, sonogram etc.
  • Understand clinical basis of some common clinical procedure i.e., intramuscular and intravenous injection, lumbar puncture and kidney biopsy etc.

Integration

From the integrated teaching of other basic science, student shall be able to comprehend the regulation and integration of the functions of the organs and systems in the body and thus interpret the anatomical basis of disease process.

HUMAN PHYSIOLOGY INCLUDING BIO PHYSICS

PHYSIOLOGY

Goal

The broad goal of the teaching of undergraduate students in Physiology aims at providing the student comprehensive knowledge of the normal functions of the organ systems of the body to facilitate an understanding of the Physiological basis of health and disease.

Objectives :

Knowledge

At the end the course the student will be able to:

  • Explain the normal functioning of all the organs systems and their interactions for well coordinated total body function.
  • Assess the relative contribution of each organ system to the maintenance of the milieu interior.
  • Elucidate the physiological aspects of normal growth and development.
  • Describe the physiological response and adaptations to environmental stresses.
  • List physiological principles underlying pathogenesis and treatment of disease.

Skill

At the end of the course the student shall be able to:

  • Conduct experiments designed for study of physiological phenomena.
  • Interpret experimental/investigative data.
  • Distinguish between normal abnormal data derived as a result of tests, which he/she has performed and observed in the laboratory.

Integration

At the end of the integrated teaching the student shall acquire an integrated knowledge of organ structure and function and the regulatory mechanism.

Bio Physics

  • Physical principles of transport across cell membranes and across capillary wall.
  • Biopotentials
  • Physical principles governing flow of blood in heart and blood vessels.
BIOCHEMISTRY

Biochemistry including medical physics Molecular Biology

Goal
The board goal of the teaching of undergraduate students in biochemistry is to make them understand the scientific basis of the life processes at the molecular level and to orient them toward the application of the knowledge acquired in solving clinical problems.

Objectives:

Knowledge

At the end of the course, the student shall be able to:

  • Describe the molecular and functional organization of a cell and list its subcellular
    components.
  • Delineate structure function and inter-relationships of biomolecules and consequences of
    deviation from normal.
  • Summarize the fundamental aspects of enzymology and clinical application wherein
    regulation of enzymatic activity is altered.
  • Describe digestion and assimilation of nutrients and consequences of malnutrition.
  • Integrate the various aspects of metabolism and their regulatory pathways.
  • Explain biochemical basis of inherited disorders with their associated sequelae.
  • Describe mechanisms involved in maintenance of body fluid and pH homeostasis.
  • Outline the molecular mechanisms of gene expression and regulation, the principal of genetic
    engineering and their application in medicine.
  • Summarize the molecular concept of body defences and their supplication in medicine.
  • Outline the biochemical basis of environmental health hazards, biochemical basis of cancer
    and carcinogenesis.
  • Familiarize with principles of various conventional and specialized laboratory investigations
    and instrumentation analysis and interpretation of a given data.
  • Suggest experiments of support theoretical concepts and clinical diagnosis.

Skills

A the end of the course, the student shall be able to:

  • Make use of conventional techniques/instruments to perform biochemical analysis relevant to clinical screening and diagnosis;
  • Analyse and interpret investigative data;
  • Demonstrate the skills of solving scientific and clinical problems and decision making.

Integration

The knowledge acquire in biochemistry shall help the students to integrate molecular events with structure and function of the human body in health and disease.

PATHOLOGY

Goal
The broad goal of the teaching of undergraduate student in Pathology is to provide the students with a comprehensive knowledge of the mechanisms and cause of disease, in order to enable him/her to achieve complete understanding of the natural history and clinical manifestations of disease.

Objectives:

Knowledge
At the end of the course, the student shall be able to:-

  • Describe the structure and ultra structure of a sick cell, mechanism of cell degeneration, cell death and repair and be able to correlate structural and functional alterations.
  • Explain the pathophysiological processes which govern the maintenance of homeostasis mechanisms of their disturbance and the morphological and clinical manifestations associated with it.
  • Describe the mechanisms and patterns of tissue response to injury such that he/she can appreciate the pathophysiology of disease processes and their clinical manifestations.
  • Correlate normal and altered morphology (gross and microscopic) of different organ systems in common diseases to the extent needed for understanding of disease processes and their clinical significance.

Skills

At the end of the course, the student shall be able to:-

  • Describe the rational and principles of technical procedures of the diagnostic laboratory tests and interpretation of the results.
  • Perform the simple bed-side tests on blood, urine and other biological fluid samples.
  • Draw a rational scheme of investigation aimed at diagnosing and managing the cases of common disorders.
  • Understand biochemical/physiological disturbances that occur as a result of disease in collaboration with pre-clinical departments.

Integration

At the end of training he/she shall be able to integrate the cause of disease and relationship of different etiological factors (social, economic and environmental) the contribute to the natural history of diseases most prevalent in India.

MICROBIOLOGY

Goal
The broad goal of the teaching of undergraduate students tin Microbiology is it provide an understanding of the natural history of infectious disease in order to deal with the etiology, pathogenesis, laboratory diagnosis, treatment and control of infections in the community.

Objectives:

Knowledge

At the end of the course, the student shall be able to :

  • State the infective micro-organisms of the human body and describe the host parasite relationship.
  • List pathogenic micro-organisms (bacteria, viruses, parasites, fungi) and describe the pathogenesis of the diseases produced by them.
  • State or indicate the modes of transmission of pathogenic and opportunistic organisms and their sources, including insect vectors responsible for transmission of infection.
  • Describe the mechanism of immunity to infections.
  • Acquire knowledge on suitable antimicrobial agents for treatment of infections and scope of immunotherapy and different vaccines available or prevention of communicable diseases.
  • Apply methods of disinfection and sterilization to control the prevent hospital and community acquired infections.
  • Recommend laboratory investigations regarding bacteriological examination of food, water and air.

Skills

At the end of the course, the student shall be able to :

  • Plan the interpret laboratory investigations for the diagnosis of infections, disease and correlate the clinical manifestations with the etiological agent.
  • Identify the common infection agents with the help of laboratory procedure and use antimicrobial sensitivity test to select suitable antimicrobial agents.
  • Perform commonly employed bed-side tests for detection of infections agents such as blood film of malaria, filaria, gram staining and Acid Fast Bacilli (AFB) staining and stool sample for ova cyst etc.

Integration

The student shall understand infection disease of national importance in relation to the clinical, therapeutic and preventive aspects.

FORENSIC MEDICINE & TOXICOLOGY

Goal
The broad goal of the teaching of undergraduate student in Forensic Medicine is to produce a physician who is well informed about medico legal responsibilities in practice of medicine. He/She acquires knowledge of law in relation to medical practice, medical negligence and respect for codes of medical ethics.
Objectives:

Knowledge

At the end to the course, the student shall be able to:

  • Identify the basic medico legal aspects of and general practice.
  • Define the medico legal responsibilities of general physician while rendering community service either in a rural primary health centre or an urban health centre.

Skills

  • Make observations and logical inference in order to initiate enquiries in criminal; matters and
    medico legal problems.
  • Diagnose and treat common emergencies in poisoning and manage chronic toxicity.
  • Make observations and interpret funding at postmortem examination.
  • Observe the principles of medical ethics in the practice of his profession.

Integration

Department shall provide an integrated approach towards allied disciplines like Pathology, Radiology, Forensic Sciences, Hospital Administration etc. to impart training regarding medico legal responsibilities of physicians at all levels of health care. Integration with relevant disciplines will provide scientific basis of clinical toxicology e.g. medicine, pharmacology, etc.

PHARMACOLOGY

Goal
The broad goal of the teaching of undergraduate students in Pharmacology is to inculcate a rational and scientific basic of therapeutics.
Objectives:

Knowledge
At the end of the course, the student be able to :

  • Describe the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of essential and commonly used drugs.
  • List the indications, contraindications, interactions and adverse reactions of commonly used
    drugs.
  • Indicate the use of appropriate drug in a particular disease with considerations to the cost,
    efficacy and safety for -i) Individual needs
    ii) Mass therapy under national health programmes
  • Describe the pharmacokinetic basis, clinical presentation, diagnosis and management of
    common poisonings.
  • List the drugs of addiction and recommend the management.
  • Classify environment and occupational pollutants and state the management issues.
  • Indicate causations in prescription of drugs in special medical situations such as pregnancy,
    lactation, infancy and old age.
  • Integrate the concept of rational drug therapy in clinical pharmacology.
  • State the principles underlying the concept of ‘Essential Drugs’.
  • Evaluate the ethics and modalities involved in the development and introduction of new
    drugs.

Skills
At the end of course, the student shall be able to :

  • Prescribe drugs for common ailments.
  • Recognize adverse reactions and interactions of commonly used drugs.
  • Observe experiments designed for study of effects of drugs, bioassay and interpretations of the
    experimental data.
  • Scan information on common pharmaceutical preparations and critical by evaluate drug
    formulations.

Integration

Practical knowledge of use of drugs in clinical practice will be acquired through integrated teaching with clinical departments and pre-clinical departments.

COMMUNITY MEDICINE

Goal
The broad goal of the teaching of undergraduate students in Community Medicine is to prepare them to function as community and first level physicians in accordance with the institutional goals.

Objectives:

Knowledge
At the end of the course, the student shall be able to :-

  • Describe the health care delivery system including rehabilitation of the disable in the country.
  • Describe the National Health Programmes with particular emphasis on maternal and child
    health programmes, family welfare planning and population control.
  • List epidemiological methods and describe their applications to communicable and non-
    communicable diseases in the community or hospital situation.
  • Apply bio-statistical methods and techniques.
  • Outline the demographic pattern of the country and appreciate the roles of the individual
    family, community and socio-cultural milieu ion health and disease.
  • Describe the health information systems.
  • Enunciate the principles and components of primary health care and the national health
    policies to achieve the goal of ‘Health administration, Health education in relation to
    community’.
  • Able to plan Health Education Programme/IEC activities and able to evaluate a programme.
  • Able to describe principles of organization.

Skills:

At the end of the course, the student should be able to :-

  • Use epidemiology as a scientific tool to make national decisions relevant to community and
    individual patient intervention.
  • Collect, analyze, interpret and present simple community and hospital based data.
  • Diagnose and manage common health problems and emergencies at the individual family and
    community levels keeping in mind the existing health care resources and in the context of the
    prevailing socio-cultural beliefs.
  • Diagnose and manage maternal and child health problems and advise a couple and the
    community on the family welfare planning methods available in the context of the national
    priorities.
  • Diagnose and manage common nutritional problems at the individual and community level.
  • Plan, implement and evaluate a health education program with skill to use simple audiovisual
    aids.
  • Interact with other members of the health care team and participate in the organization of
    health care team and participate in the organization of health care services and implementation
    of national health programmes.
  • To conduct group meetings / able to give health talk.

Integration

Develop capabilities of synthesis between cause of illness in the environment or community and individual health and respond with leadership qualities to institutes remedial measures for this.

REGULATIONS GOVERNING M.B.B.S. DEGREE COURSE
  • Eligibility for Admission
  • Duration
  • Attendance and Scheme of Examination

ELIGIBILITY

Qualifying Examination

A candidate seeking admission to first MBBS course:

  • Shall have passed two year Pre University examination conducted by Department of Pre- University Education, Karnataka State, with English as one of the subjects and Physics, Chemistry and Biology as optional subjects. The candidate shall have passed subjects of English, Physics, Chemistry and Biology individually also.

OR

  • Shall have passed any other examination conducted by Board/ Councils/Intermediate examination established by State Governments/Central Government and recognized as equivalent to two year Pre University examination by the Rajiv Gandhi University of Health Sciences/Association of Indian Universities (AIU), with English as one of the subjects and Physics, Chemistry and Biology as optional subjects and the candidate shall have passed subjects of English, Physics, Chemistry and Biology
    individually.
    OR
  • Shall have passed Intermediate examination in Science of an Indian University/Board/Council or other recognised examining bodies with Physics, Chemistry and Biology, which shall include a practical test in these subjects and also English as compulsory subject. The candidate shall have passed subjects of English, Physics, Chemistry and Biology individually.OR
  • Shall have passed first year of eh three year degree course of a recognised University with Physics, Chemistry and Biology including a practical test in these subjects provided the examination is an ‘University Examination’ provided that the candidate shall have passed subjects of English, Physics, Chemistry and Biology individually in the pre university or other examinations mentioned in the clauses above.
    OR
  • Shall have passed B.Sc. Examination of an Indian University, provided that he/she has passed the B.Sc. examination with not less than two of the following subjects: Physics, Chemistry, Biology (Botany, Zoology) provided the candidate has passed subjects of English, Physics, Chemistry and Biology individually in the qualifying examination mentioned in clauses (i), (ii). (iii).

Note: Candidates who have passed “Physical Science” instead of Physics and Chemistry as two separate subjects are not eligible for admission to MBBS course as per Medical Council of India Regulations vide letter MCI-37(2)2002/Med.922 dated 14.02.2001 and RGUHS letter UG/ELY-115/1998-2000 dated 22.05.2001.

Marks

The selection of students to medical colleges shall be based on merit provided that:

  • In case of admission on the basis of qualifying examination, a candidate for admission to MBBS course must have passed individually in the subjects of Physics, Chemistry, Biology and English and must have obtained not less than 50% marks taken together in Physics, Chemistry and Biology in qualifying examination. In respect of candidates belonging to Scheduled Castes, Scheduled Tribes or Category I, the marks obtained in Physics, Chemistry and Biology taken together in qualifying examination be not less than 40% instead of 50% as above.
  • In case of admission on the basis of competitive entrance examination, a candidate must have passed individually in the subjects of Physics, Chemistry, Biology and English and must have obtained not less than 50% marks in Physics, Chemistry and Biology taken together at the qualifying examination and in addition must have come in the merit list prepared as a result of such competitive entrance examination by securing not less than 50% marks in Physics, Chemistry and Biology taken together in the competitive examination. In respect of candidates belonging to Scheduled Castes, Scheduled Tribes or Category I, the marks obtained in Physics, Chemistry and Biology taken together in qualifying examination and competitive entrance examination be not less than 40% instead of 50% as stated above.(vide amendment to MCI Regulations, 1997, notified in Gazette of Government of India dated 29.05.1999).

Age

The candidate should have completed 17 years of age on or before 31st day of
December of the year of admission.

DURATION OF THE COURSE
  • Every student shall undergo a period of certified study extending over 4 ½ academic years from the date of commencement of his study for the subject comprising the medical curriculum to the date of completion of the examination followed by one year compulsory rotating Internship. The 4 ½ years course has been divided into three phases.1. Phase – I - 1 year, consisting of two terms of 6 months each.
    2. Phase – II – 1 ½ years, consisting of three terms of 6 months each.
    3. Phase – III – 3 ½ years, after Phase – I, consisting of 7 terms.
  • The first year shall be occupied in the study of the Phase – I (Pre Clinical) subject of Human Anatomy (650 hours), Physiology including Bio Physics (480 hours), Bio Chemistry (240 hours) and Introduction to Community Medicine (60 hours). A detailed syllabus is given in Section IV A.
  • After passing pre-clinical subjects in Phase – I, the Phase – II shall be 3 terms (1 ½ years), devoted to Para Clinical and Clinical subjects. Para Clinical subjects shall consist of Pathology, Pharmacology, Microbiology, Forensic Medicine including Toxicology and part of Community Medicine. During this phase the clinical subjects shall be taught concurrently. The clinical subjects taught will be Medicine and its allied specialisist, Surgery and its allied specialties and Obstetrics and Gynecology.
  • Phase – III consists of Community Medicine and clinical subjects – Medicine and its allied specialists, Surgery and its allied specialties, Obstetrics and Gynecology.
ACADEMIC TERMS

All candidates admitted beyond the last date stipulated by the University shall have to appear for I Professional Examination to be held subsequent to the regular examination after completion of the prescribed duration.

ATTENDANCE

Every candidate should have attendance not less than 75% of the total classes conducted in theory, practical and clinical jointly in each calendar year calculated from the date of commencement of the term to the last working day as notified by the University in each of the subjects prescribed to be eligible to appear for the university examination. (vide Medical Council of India Notification on Graduate Medical Education (Amendment) Regulations 2003, published in the Gazette of India Part III, Section 4, Extraordinary issued on 15th October 2003).

The Principal should notify at the College the attendance details at the end of each term without fail under intimation to this University.

A candidate lacking in the prescribed attendance and progress in any subject(s) in theory or practical / clinical in the first appearance should not be permitted to appear for the examination in that subject(s).

TEACHING HOUR

PHASE I:
Table I: Distribution of teaching hours in Phase – I subjects

Method Subject / Number of Hours
Anatomy Physiology Biochemistry Community Medicine
Lectures 4 hrs per week 160 hrs 120 hrs 40 hrs
Tutorials 1 hr per week 80 hrs 20 hrs 10 hrs
Group Discussion 2 hrs per week 80 hrs 20 hrs 4 hrs
Practical/Demonstration 4 hrs per week 240 hrs 80 hrs 6 hrs
Dissection 8 hrs per week - - -
Total 650 48 240 60

* Includes Seminars, Integrated Teaching ** Includes field visits

PHASE II:

Table II: Teaching hours for theory and practical classes for the Phase – II subjects

Subject Theory Practical Integrated teaching Total hours
Pathology 120 hrs. 144 hrs. 36 hrs. 300
Pharmacology 120 hrs. 144 hrs. 36 hrs. 300
Microbiology 120 hrs. 94 hrs. 36 hrs. 250
Forensic Medicine 70 hrs. 20 hrs. 10 hrs. 100
Community Medicine* 100 hrs. 80 hrs. 20 hrs. 200

* Community Medicine teaching will continue in Phase III Part I also.

For MBBS admission enquiries, submit the Admission Enquiry form

 

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

You may use these HTML tags and attributes: <a href="" title=""> <abbr title=""> <acronym title=""> <b> <blockquote cite=""> <cite> <code> <del datetime=""> <em> <i> <q cite=""> <strike> <strong>